By Marjolein 't Hart, Joost Jonker, Jan Luiten van Zanden
This ebook is the 1st complete evaluate of Dutch monetary historical past from the 16th century to the current day. it's replete with information and figures drawn from clean study for the foremost components that made up our minds the advance of public finance, forex and banking. It offers a step by step description of the evolution of the monetary structures in a single of the pioneer nations of recent finance.
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Additional resources for A Financial History of the Netherlands
There was yet another item of revenue in addition to the central Union taxes and the customs duties. The areas reconquered from Spain were put under the direct administration of the Council of State in The Hague. For the sake of convenience, they were labelled generaliteitslanden (generality lands) although this term came into official use only after 1648. These included northern parts of Brabant and Flanders together with parts of Limburg in the south. In the north, a border region under the name of Wedde and Westerwolde was a generality land too.
Instead, the republican bonds were issued by several public authorities: the Union, the provinces, the major cities, and the boards of admiralty. Mostly, the respective receivers of taxes (the Receiver General of the Union, the Receivers General of the seven provinces, the Receivers of the larger cities, the Receivers General of the five navy boards) took care for the placement and management of the loans, as well as for the payment of interest. Actually, they acted like semiprivate bankers for the state.
143. However, the regressive character was diminished by the introduction of heavier semi-direct and direct taxes. 4) could be evaluated further. 9 shows the estimated development of the tax burden for the wealthier 30 per cent of the society, as well as for the poorer 70 per cent. Apparently, Holland managed to focus a relatively larger proportion of the burden upon the rich. In all, the diverse structure of taxation allowed the authorities to increase one tax permanently, another temporarily, and to introduce a third one.