Access to Geography. Development by Garrett Nagle

By Garrett Nagle

Improvement offers an in-depth overview of the place the area is at the present time via contemplating quite a lot of components which give a contribution to the general improvement of a rustic, after which appears to be like ahead to the long run and what that holds. The ebook contains sections on: improvement and underdevelopment prior and current innovations for improvement the impact of improvement on inhabitants, nutrition offer, urbanisation, industrialisation and the surroundings, and sustainable improvement.

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Population pyramids tell us a great deal of information about the age and sex structure of a population (Figure 24): • • • • • a wide base indicates a high birth rate narrowing base suggests falling birth rate straight or near vertical sides reveals low death rate concave slopes characterise high death rates bulges in the slope suggest high rates of in-migration (for instance, excess males 20–35 years will be economic migrants looking for work; excess elderly, usually female, will indicate retirement resorts) • deficits in the slope indicate out-migration or age-specific or sexspecific deaths (epidemics, war).

The tiers are defined as core, largely MEDCs, the periphery, which can be identified with LEDCs, and the semi-periphery (Figure 18). The semi-periphery is a political label. It refers to those countries where there are class struggles and social change, such as Latin America in the 1980s and eastern Europe in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Wallerstein argued that capitalist development led to cycles of growth and stagnation. One of these cycles is a long-term economic cycle known as a Kondratieff cycle.

Where birth controls have been imposed by the government, they are not successful (except in the case of China). In the MEDCs, financial and social support for children is often available to encourage a pronatalist approach. However, in countries where there are fears of negative population growth (as in Singapore), more active and direct measures are taken by the government to increase birth rates. (e) Economic Prosperity The correlation between economic prosperity and the birth rate is not total, but there are links.

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