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Extra info for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles And Radioactive Waste Management: Nuclear Development
For a transmutation strategy with multiple recycling of the fuel, the deployment phase takes many decades. e. the TRU and radiotoxicity reduction) are, however, not impeded during this time, although the detailed isotopic composition of the waste might show significant differences with the values for the cycle at equilibrium. The preservation of the TRU reduction of a transmutation strategy during the shutdown phase, on the other hand, requires the TRU inventory to be burnt in dedicated TRU burners when the reactors are phased out.
15] Roque, B. et al. (2002), “Experimental Validation of the Code System “DARWIN” for Spent Fuel Isotopic Predictions in Fuel Cycle Applications”, PHYSOR 2002, Seoul, Korea.  Loubière, S. et al. (1999), “APOLLO2 Twelve Years Later”, Proc. M&C’99, Madrid, Spain. Y. et al. (1993), “ERANOS I: The Advanced European System of Codes for Reactor Physics Calculation”, Proc. Int. Conf. on Mathematics Methods and Supercomputing in Nuclear Applications, 19-23 April 1993, Karlsruhe, Germany.  Samson, M.
Therefore, safety assessments of radioactive waste repositories have to consider chemical toxicity consequences as well as radiological consequences . LILW The amount of chemo-toxic waste strongly depends on recycling and reuse of materials and components. For Scheme 1a (UOX in LWR) and the schemes involving recycling of Pu as MOX the IAEA report  gives a good overview of the chemical toxic elements than have to be considered. Typical chemical-toxic substances occurring in ILW are metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Bi, Cd, Hg, Be, Se, U, Pu), nitric and hydrofluoric acids and various organic components such as oils, solvents, extraction fluids and complexing agents.