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Extra resources for Agent-Based Models of Energy Investment Decisions
In this scenario, energy wholesale markets provide the price information time-series for the entire scenario timeframe exogenously. Two time-series are fed into the energy wholesale markets: hourly price information and the long-term contract price information. If the impact of different price scenarios on national and international markets on the distribution system is to be investigated, the model needs to be executed several times. Wholesale market time-series can be generated by a national or transnational energy system model 22.
The number of contracts which can be signed is not limited. All suppliers post their offers simultaneously. 22 Models such as MARKAL, TIMES and GEMS may be used. 6 Financial Incentives and Regulations The development of energy systems not only depends on commodity prices. Local and national governments aiming to reach their policy goals implement a range of measures targeting actors’ decision making processes. The model accounts for some aspects of two different measures governments can take to influence the future development of distribution energy systems: financial schemes and market and network regulations.
4 The Layer Concept 23 conditions like temperature, wind speed, and insulation on the performance of technologies may also be included18. 4 Agent Layer The agent layer comprises models of all actors who demand or supply energy in the distribution system. Each agent is associated with one control domain, located in the technical layer. Agents can select the unit commitment protocol for their control domain and thereby operate it, they have access to the operational data of its components, and they may change its structure by investment or decommissioning decisions.