An Introduction to Phonetics by Parviz Birjandi and Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan

By Parviz Birjandi and Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan

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The vocal cords are kept far apart, and the nasal cavity is closed by the velum. Then the trapped air is suddenly released. [b] is the voiced counterpart of [p]. The only difference is that the vocal cords CHAPTER THREE 33 are close to each other and vibrate during the articulation of [b]. In the case of /m/, the nasal cavity is open. /b/ and /p/ /t/ and /d/ /k/ and /g/ [t] is a voiceless dental or alveolar stop. The tongue makes contact with the front teeth or with the alveolar ridge directly above them.

The only difference is that the vocal cords CHAPTER THREE 33 are close to each other and vibrate during the articulation of [b]. In the case of /m/, the nasal cavity is open. /b/ and /p/ /t/ and /d/ /k/ and /g/ [t] is a voiceless dental or alveolar stop. The tongue makes contact with the front teeth or with the alveolar ridge directly above them. There is no vocal cord vibration and the nasal cavity is blocked. [d] is a voiced dental or alveolar stop. It is produced in the same way as [t] but with vibration of the vocal cords.

You should be able to feel the turbulence created by the sounds. It is possible to maintain a fricative sound for as long as your breath holds out. This is very different from a plosive sound. Other fricatives include the /v/ in van, the /s/ in sin, the /h/ in hat /hæt/, the /ð/ in that /ðæt/, the /z/ in zoo /zu:/ and the /Ʒ/ sound in genre /ˈʒɑ:nrə/. Fricative consonants result from a narrowing of the speech canal that does not achieve the full closure characteristic of the occlusives. The shape and position of the lips and/or tongue determine the type of fricative produced.

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