## The History of the Calculus and Its Conceptual Development by Carl B. Boyer

By Carl B. Boyer

Fluent description of the advance of either the necessary and differential calculus. Early beginnings in antiquity, medieval contributions, and a century of anticipation lead as much as a attention of Newton and Leibniz, the interval of indecison that them, and the ultimate rigorous formula that we all know this present day.

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We proceed as follows: • Determine a value κ from the cumulative normal distribution, so that 1 √ 2π +κ −κ e−z 2 /2 dz = α. 960. • Given the value κ, let x solve Ax = b and compute φ lo = wT x − κ wT (AT S−2 A)−1 w, φ up = wT x + κ wT (AT S−2 A)−1 w. Then [φ lo , φ up ] is a 100α% confidence interval for wT x. There are more general forms of the procedure. It is possible to construct (wider) confidence intervals that have joint probability α so that, for example, we can bound all the components of x simultaneously.

We see how this works in the next challenge. 4. Suppose our cache memory has parameters b = 4, = 8, α = 1 ns, and μ = 16 ns. Assume that when necessary we replace the block in cache that was least-recently used, and that we set naccess=256 in the program fragment above. Consider the following table of estimated times per access in nanoseconds and show how each entry is derived. 000 If we work in a high-performance “compiled” language such as F ORTRAN or a Cvariant, we can use our timings of program fragments to estimate the cache miss penalty.

Name of author, since this provides someone to whom bugs can be reported and questions asked. • original date of the module and a list of later modifications, since this gives information such as whether the module is likely to run under the current computer environment and whether it might include the latest advances. 39 November 20, 2008 10:52 40 sccsbook Sheet number 50 Page number 40 cyan magenta yellow black Chapter 4. 1. m, an example of a legacy program. function [r, q] = posted (C) [m,n] = size(C); for k = 1:n for j=1:m x(j) = C(j,k); end xn = 0; for j=1:m, xn = xn + x(j)*x(j); end r(k,k) = sqrt(xn); for j=1:m, q(j,k) = C(j,k)/r(k,k); end for j = k+1:n r(k,j) = 0; for p=1:m r(k,j) = r(k,j) + q(p,k)’*C(p,j); end for p=1:m C(p,j) = C(p,j) - q(p,k)*r(k,j); end end end • description of each input parameter, so that a user knows what information needs to be provided and in what format.