By G. Pistoia, J.-P. Wiaux, S.P. Wolsky
This ebook covers all features of spent battery assortment and recycling. firstly, the legislative and regulatory updates are addressed and the most associations and courses world wide are pointed out. an outline of the present battery platforms, of the chemical compounds utilized in them and their damaging homes is made, by means of a survey of the main commercial recycling approaches. the protection and potency of such methods are under pressure. specific attention is given to the published emissions, i.e. to the influence on human overall healthiness and the surroundings. equipment for the evaluate of this impression are defined. a number of chapters care for particular battery chemistries: lead-acid, nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride, zinc (carbon and alkaline), lithium and lithium-ion. for every form of battery, information are supplied at the collection/recycling approach from the technical, fiscal and environmental standpoint. The chemical substances recoverable from each one technique and remarketable are pointed out. A bankruptcy offers with recuperating of the big batteries powering electrical automobiles, e.g. lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion. the ultimate bankruptcy is dedicated to the real subject of gathering batteries from used electric and digital gear. The out of control disposal of those units nonetheless containing their batteries contributes to environmental pollutants.
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Q; Figure 4. , 43 and substitution of Ni-Cd batteries with other technologies has occurred in this market segment. At the same time, the portable Ni-Cd batteries used for cordless power tool (CPT) applications have had an important market development due to the end user requirement for higher power and optimum cost/performance ratio. The portable rechargeable battery market has seen the appearance of technologies like Ni-MH, Li-Ion and Li-Polymer, as the market has required batteries with improved energy to weight and volume ratios in a given capacity range.
Finally, the synergistic effect of the collection of batteries from the de-manufacturing of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) will be addressed. In order to give a broader perspective to this Section, reference is made to the recently published Euphemet study (Scoullos-2000) on Policy of Heavy Metals (Hg, Cd, Pb) in the European Community. From several scenarios considered by the authors of the report, one can extract two broad conclusions on the future of the rapidly changing 38 world of portable rechargeable batteries in general and of nickel-cadmium batteries in particular: 1.
A speciality market exist in the aviation sector for engine start-up and emergency electrical power supply. Space and defence represent minor but stable market segments. 3. HOARDING OF PORTABLE RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES In November 2000, a consumer survey was performed on the hoarding (home storage) of portable rechargeable batteries in France. The results are based on 1,010 "face to 44 Figure 5. Industrial Ni-Cd Sales in Europe: Historical Evolution (in each bar, from bottom to top: Railways, UPS, Aviation, EV, Space&Defence) (Source CollectNiCad) face" interviews performed in private households.